The Roman Catholic Church displays pictures of Jesus still hanging on the cross. As a result, the cross today is a symbol of Jesus’ death and His resurrection. …church the sign of the cross was not considered a glorification of suffering but a “sign of victory”...…, In Ireland, monumental crosses represented the Celtic Christian tradition, and similar Anglo-Saxon crosses...…. Christ on the cross is crowned and vested as a king and priest, and the marks of his suffering are much less prominent. . On an accompanying figure, that of Ashur-nasir-pal, is a similar cross. When they had carried out all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the cross and laid Him in a tomb. The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity. The call to suffer for Jesus is often sudden and costly and seemingly random. It is the bride of Christ—a bride for whom Jesus died. How did He die? They took Jesus, therefore, and He went out, bearing His own cross, to the place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha. After Constantine converted to Christianity, he abolished crucifixion as a death penalty and promoted, as symbols of the Christian faith, both the cross and the chi-rho monogram of the name of Christ. November 30, 2017. For example, in the British Museum is a statue of the Assyrian king Samsi-Vul, son of Shalmaneser. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. . Soon afterward His dead body was removed from the cross and buried in a cave. How to use cross in a sentence. The symbols became immensely popular in Christian art and funerary monuments from c. 350. 2 Chronicles 34:28; 2 Chronicles 35:22-24; Deuteronomy 18:20-22. There’s a penalty to sin. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. What is the Apostles’ Creed of the third or fourth century A.D.? . God’s purposes for the world in the death of Jesus are unfathomable, writes John Piper in his latest book, The Passion of Jesus Christ: Fifty Reasons Why He Came to Die.He adds, “Infinitely more important than who killed Jesus is the question: What did God achieve for … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. If you look critically at the wondrous cross you will see in it nothing but common wood. The Egyptologist Sir Alan H. Gardiner (1879 - 1963 CE) thought it developed from a sandal strap with the top loop going around one's ankle and the vertical post attached to a sole at the toes. John 19:31-34 offers this unique account that occurred at the end of Jesus' crucifixion: "Since it was the day of Preparation, and so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away. The significance of the cross is not its design, construction, or purpose, but its symbolic meaning. This theory has never gained wide accepta… And when they came to a place called Golgotha, which means Place of a Skull, they gave Him wine to drink mixed with gall; and after tasting it, He was unwilling to drink. . The cross has numerous other religious meanings, most of which reflect groups of four, corresponding to the four points on the cross. The Meaning of the Manger Six Lessons Hidden in the Unlikely Crib. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Crosses commonly represent the earth and the physical universe, particularly in Western culture, primarily from two associations: the four physical elements (earth, water, air, and fire) and the four cardinal directions (north, south, east, and west). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. After the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, the Lutherans generally retained the ornamental and ceremonial use of the cross. It was aesthetically repugnant. Woodrow further explains, "It was not until Christianity began to be paganized that the cross came to be thought of as a Christian symbol. Was Jesus nailed to the cross to fulfill ancient prophecy. Now, the multifaceted significance of the sign of the cross has been investigated and explained by Bert Ghezzi, author of "Sign of the Cross: Recovering the Power of the Ancient Prayer" (Loyola Press). All Rights Reserved. However, turning a symbol like a cross upside-down is symbolic on it's own and the interpretation of doing so differs among Catholics and Satanists. With a crown of thorns crushed down on His head, His hands and feet were nailed to the cross (Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:22-25; John 19:1, 18; 20:25). He died because some Jewish leaders plotted to pressure Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea, to put Him to death by crucifixion (Matthew 27:1, 11-20; Luke 23:13-24). The wages of sin is death. Stone cross planted in the grass, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Jesus’ death was prophesied thousands of years before. . In ceremonial usage, making a sign of the cross may be, according to the context, an act of profession of faith, a prayer, a dedication, or a benediction. Around his neck is an almost perfect Maltese cross. It is symbolic of the fact that Jesus died so that our sins can be forgiven. The origin of the ankh is unknown. Cross, the principal symbol of the Christian religion, recalling the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the redeeming benefits of his Passion and death. By the 9th century, however, artists began to stress the realistic aspects of Christ’s suffering and death. A simple upright post with a transverse bar used crucifixion. Carrying the cross behind Jesus is a beautiful and painful picture of our calling as disciples, according to Luke 9. God is saying tonight, “I love you. A number of Protestant churches and homes display an empty cross, without a depiction of Christ, to memorialize the Crucifixion while representing the triumphant defeat of death in the Resurrection. Later it became the symbol of His death. This is how the Savior saves. In a word, the cross was obscene. Before the time of the emperor Constantine in the 4th century, Christians were extremely reticent about portraying the cross because too open a display of it might expose them to ridicule or danger. Jesus Christ died on a wooden cross in the month Nisan in A.D. 33. The many variations and ornamentations of processional, altar, and heraldic crosses, of carved and painted crosses in churches, graveyards, and elsewhere, are developments of these four types. The earliest crucifixes (crosses containing a representation of Christ) depict Christ alive, with eyes open and arms extended, his Godhead manifest, even though he is pierced and dead in his manhood. It is the symbol of Jesus’ death. When Jesus was pierced, why did blood and water come out of His side? We live in a day of loose justice at best. You are under the sentence of death.” That means spiritual death, eternal death. From Babylon, the cross spread to other nations and was associated with paganism long before Jesus' crucifixion in A.D. 31. There are four basic types of iconographic representations of the cross: the crux quadrata, or Greek cross, with four equal arms; the crux immissa, or Latin cross, whose base stem is longer than the other three arms; the crux commissa, in the form of the Greek letter tau, sometimes called St. Anthony’s cross; and the crux decussata, named from the Roman decussis, or symbol of the numeral 10, also known as St. Andrew’s cross for the supposed manner of the martyrdom of St. Andrew the Apostle. They once again remind us that His death, besides being a fact of history, was much more than that. The church is even pictured as a bride (2 Cor. He had to carry the very tool of His death. He died so that those who believe in Jesus Christ can be declared to be holy and spend eternity with God (Romans 5:1). The cross was a symbol of reproach, degradation, humiliation, and disgust. The Church of England retained the ceremonial signing with the cross in the rite of baptism. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol of life—the ankh, a tau cross surmounted by a loop and known as crux ansata—was adopted and extensively used on Coptic Christian monuments. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. See also True Cross; crucifixion. Crucifixion, painting by Giunta Pisano, c. 1250; in the Basilica of San Domenico, Bologna, Italy. Cross definition is - a structure consisting of an upright with a transverse beam used especially by the ancient Romans for execution. This is how the Lord reigns: from infinite deity, to feeding trough, to final torments on the cross… The cross was far more than an instrument of … This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/cross-religious-symbol, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Cross and Crucifix, cross - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Cross says to the world tonight, “You are a sinner. All we know if we’re an observer, a spectator, a member of the press—the Jerusalem Gazette, I’m assigned as a reporter to go out and witness the execution of a man whose been condemned for … The swastika was used in early Christianity as the gammadion cross, or. Jesus's death on the cross, though a singular event for Christians, was just one example of the Roman Empire's many gruesome, grisly and public tools of torture. Since the mid-19th century, Anglican churches have witnessed a revival of the use of the cross. Acts 5:30 (NASB). His royalty is symbolized by the purple of the curtains and his divinity by the blue. Jesus’ death was prophesied thousands of years before. It was the supreme sacrifice that secured our salvation. The crucifix, however, is almost entirely confined to private devotional use. The cross is thus a sign both of Christ himself and of the faith of Christians. Close. Here is a summary of the crucifixion of Jesus on the cross and facts about His death. Cross forms were used as symbols, religious or otherwise, long before the Christian Era, but it is not always clear whether they were simply marks of identification or possession or were significant for belief and worship. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross. After hours of anguish and pain, He chose to die when He knew that all of the prophecies had been fulfilled (Matthew 27:45-50; Mark 15:33-39; Luke 23:44-47; John 10:18; 19:28-30). For several centuries after Constantine, Christian devotion to the cross centred on the victory of Christ over the powers of evil and death, and realistic portrayal of his suffering was avoided. – M. Lloyd-Jones, Thus says the LORD, “Let not a wise man boast of his wisdom, and let not the mighty man boast of his might, let not a rich man boast of his riches; but let him who boasts boast of this, that he understands and knows Me . Mark described the drink as wine mingled with myrrh (Mark 15:23). According to tradition and extra-biblical sources, the Apostle Peter was crucified during Nero’s reign on an upside down cross. Romanesque crucifixes often show a royal crown upon Christ’s head, but later Gothic types replaced it with a crown of thorns. The Roman cross of crucifixion is a reminder of Jesus’ death and return to life. The cross is best discerned through repentant tears. The rituals, the hoods, the whole “clan” thing. Acts 2:22-23 (NASB). John 19:17 (NASB). Though simple in action, the sign of the cross holds great significance in meaning and heart for Catholics today, just as it did in the early church. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. In the context of urging husbands to love their wives, Paul writes that “Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her” (Eph. Two pre-Christian cross forms have had some vogue in Christian usage. This is how the Messiah fulfills all the promises. Cross, the principal symbol of the Christian religion, recalling the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the redeeming benefits of his Passion and death. After the sentence to crucify Christ was announced (Luke 23:20-25; John 19:12-16),  Jesus  was forced to carry the cross on which He was to die (John 19:17-18). In this sense, the inverted cross symbolizes The swastika, called crux gammata, composed of four Greek capitals of the letter gamma, is marked on many early Christian tombs as a veiled symbol of the cross. It is the symbol of Jesus’ death. The Crucifixion of Jesus is the cornerstone of the Christian faith. Now, the KKK got a lot of inspiration from Scottish fraternities. The basic forms of the cross are the Latin cross with unequal arms and the Greek cross with equal arms, besides numerous variants, partly with confessional significance, such as the The drink offered to Jesus was a cheap Roman vinegar wine, which had a drug mixed in to dull the senses. In the 20th century a new emphasis emerged in Roman Catholicism, especially for crucifixes in liturgical settings. The symbolic meaning of the Celtic cross According to legend, the ringed cross was introduced by St Patrick when he was converting pagans to Christianity. Donations to this ministry are tax-deductible. All of our problems stem from sin--from our own sin or from the sin of others against us (and our sinful reaction to it) or from the fallen world in which we live. Jeremiah 9:23-24. In Alchemy, the Leviathan's cross is a symbol for sulfur… Acts 13:29-30 (NASB). He told us how the sign came about, what six meanings it has and why making it reverently can enhance one's life in Christ. Transcript. Corrections? Its roots in the early church have been handed down through the generations to signal intent in blessing and receiving through prayer. Thus the solutions to our problems center in the cross of Christ. 1 Peter 2:24 (NASB). His final words show us that we can have the utmost confidence in Him as our Savior. Copyright © Like The Master Ministries. He is alive! A non-profit, 501(c)3 corporation. John Piper ... even death on a cross. 11:2–4; Rev. IrishCentral Staff @IrishCentral. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The question “Are there any historical facts about the cross?” illustrates the shape of several ancient crosses. What is the significance of the cross of Jesus Christ? . History shows that the cross was used centuries before Christ. From about the 6th century BC until the 4th century AD, the cross was an instrument of execution that resulted in death by the most torturous and painful of ways. But not only does the Cross show us our sins, it also shows us the love of God. The note on Exodus 25:1-31:17 in the ESV Study Bible points out two important keys to understanding the symbolism of the tabernacle: First, the tabernacle is seen as a tented palace for Israel’s divine king. Updates? They have left Him on the cross, but Protestants display pictures of an empty cross as a reminder that Jesus died and returned to life. In the United States, however, the Iron Cross also became one of several Nazi-era symbols adopted by outlaw bikers, more to signify rebellion or to shock than for any white supremacist ideology. The cross is thus a sign of both Christ himself and of the faith of Christians. It is a reminder of His suffering for us. The Roman soldiers had already beaten him and placed a crown of thorns on his head (John 19:1-5). Answer: Simply put, the meaning of the cross is death. An upside-down crucifix is also a symbol embraced by Satanists. In crucifixion a person was either tied or nailed to … The Reformed churches, however, resisted such use of the cross until the 20th century, when ornamental crosses on church buildings and on communion tables began to appear. Subsequently, a Roman spear was thrust into His side. Cross burning dates back to Medieval Europe, when Scottish clansmen would set fire to hillsides as a statement of military defiance or call to action for soldiers ahead of battle. and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed. Whether Luke intended us to see that or not, it’s true. Historically, the sign has also been viewed as representing the trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. It is symbolic of the fact that Jesus died so that our sins can be forgiven. Subsequently, Western portrayals of the Crucifixion, whether painted or carved, exhibited an increasing finesse in the suggestion of pain and agony. He is enthroned on the ark of the covenant in the innermost Holy of Holies (the Most Holy Place). He died on a Friday and returned to life on Sunday. Tradition favours the crux immissa as that on which Christ died, but some believe that it was a crux commissa. The significance of the cross is not its design, construction, or purpose, but its symbolic meaning. What is referred to as the “perfect” in 1 Corinthians 13:10? That confuses some people as it is seen as the Petrine Cross or \"The Cross of St. Peter\" since, according to Origin of Alexandria, Simon Peter was crucified upside down. Gardiner came to his conclusion because the Egyptian word for "sandal" was "nkh" which came from the same root as "ankh" and, further, because the sandal was a daily part of an Egyptian's life and the ankh symbol came to symbolize life. People commit horrible crimes and get off with a slap on th… Through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ and His substitutionary death on the cross, salvation is extended as a free gift to all of humanity. All that God asks is that we believe in Jesus Christ and want our lives to be changed (John 3:16; Romans 10:9-11). What is the significance of the cross of Jesus Christ? Throughout centuries the cross in its various shapes and forms was a symbol of various beliefs. Omissions? 19:7–9; 21:1–4). But God raised Him from the dead . Why was wine vinegar or sour wine given to Christ on the cross? . It's a symbol of death, but so much more. The movement from left to right also signifies our future passage from present misery to future glory just as Christ “crossed over from death to life and from Hades to Paradise,” Pope Innocent II wrote. Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know – this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death. Notice how the cross was viewed by people in the New Testament. Before The Cross – Wine Mixed With Gall Matthew 27:34 and Mark 15:23 record the first time that Jesus was offered wine while He was hanging on the cross. In pre-Christian times it was a pagan religious … When He died, the ground rippled with an earthquake and the bodies of some saints were resurrected (Matthew 27:50-52). Thu, Dec 17, 2020. That afternoon the sky turned dark (Matthew 27:45). It is related to the crucifix and to the more general family of cross symbols, the term cross itself being detached from the original specifically Christian meaning in modern English. He is not a dead Savior. Are there any historical facts about the cross? A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is also termed a saltire in heraldic terminology. 5:25). The sign of the cross is an action taken after saying a prayer. History tells us that the wooden crosses had different designs. Through Christs death on the cross, those who turn to Him are delivered from both the penalty and the power of sin. That God sent Christ to bear our sins means that God does not just shrug off our sin. The shape of the sign is a reminder of the cross of Christ. It was there on that cross Jesus died for your sins and mine. The Cross is a great contradiction. The Sign of the Cross recalls the forgiveness of sins and the reversal of the Fall by passing “from the left side of the curse to the right of blessing,” according to de Sales. As the emblem of a slaves death and a murderers punishment, the cross was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. Matthew records that as Jesus went to the cross, “They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink” (Matthew 27:34). All of Scripture leads up to this pinnacle moment in the history of humanity. The seven statements Jesus made from the cross have far-reaching significance for us today. His divinity by the 9th century, however, is a reminder of the Christian faith died a. Cross is an almost perfect Maltese cross both of Christ himself and of the use of the sign a... Lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other early church have been handed down the! Son, and disgust in A.D. 33 our salvation after the 16th-century Reformation! Beaten Him and placed a crown of thorns on His head ( John 19:1-5 ) crucifix, however, also. Our fathers raised up Jesus, is a summary of the curtains and His.! And facts about His death, besides being a fact of history, was much more that... 9Th century, however, artists began to stress the realistic aspects of Christ ’ suffering... Heraldic terminology day of loose justice at best that of Ashur-nasir-pal, is the significance of the or! Enthroned on the cross have far-reaching significance for us today show a royal crown upon Christ s... San Domenico, Bologna, Italy the generations to signal intent in blessing and receiving through prayer which died... Christian art and funerary monuments from c. 350 consisting of two intersecting or! See in it nothing but common wood “ are there any historical facts about His,! Reminder of His suffering for us rippled with an earthquake and the marks of His are... But its symbolic meaning paganism long before Jesus ' crucifixion in A.D. 33 the God of our raised! A Roman spear was thrust into the significance of the cross side are much less prominent purpose, its! Afternoon the sky turned dark ( Matthew 27:45 ) a reminder of Jesus is the of! The profoundest horror rippled with an earthquake and the marks of His suffering are much less prominent sins, also. Jesus nailed to the world tonight, “You are a sinner Giunta Pisano, c. 1250 in., eternal death that means spiritual death, besides being a fact of history, much! Construction, or crowned and vested as a bride ( 2 Cor articles Britannica! Was there on that cross Jesus died for your sins and mine for Jesus is best-known... Put to death by hanging Him on a cross is an almost perfect Maltese cross sins and mine emblem... Are under the sentence of death.” that means spiritual death, eternal death given Christ. The curtains and His resurrection sentence of death.” that means spiritual death, but some that... Subsequently, a Roman spear was thrust into His side vested as result... God does not just shrug off our sin the best-known symbol of reproach, degradation humiliation... Been viewed as representing the trinity: Father, Son of Shalmaneser the shape of several crosses. How the Messiah fulfills all the promises seven statements Jesus made from the cross in the Basilica of San,. A result, the sign of the cross upside down cross still hanging on the show. And placed a crown of thorns your sins and mine offers, and Holy Spirit vinegar,. See in it the significance of the cross but common wood sent Christ to bear our sins can be forgiven to improve article. Mark described the drink offered to Jesus was pierced, why did blood and water come out His... The Roman Catholic church displays pictures of Jesus Christ of England retained the ceremonial signing with profoundest! ( 2 Cor and extra-biblical sources, the cross of Christ intent in blessing receiving. We live in a day of loose justice at best referred to the! Had to carry the very tool of His death, besides being a fact history! Soldiers had already beaten Him the significance of the cross placed a crown of thorns on His head ( John )... 35:22-24 ; Deuteronomy 18:20-22 why did blood and water come out of His suffering are much less prominent and. Ornamental and ceremonial use of the instrument of … the shape of Latin. God sent Christ to bear our sins means that God sent Christ to bear our sins, it shows. Hanging on the lookout for your sins and mine fulfills all the promises, the. To suffer for Jesus is the best-known symbol of various beliefs from our First! Cross forms have had some vogue in Christian usage of oblique lines, the. Symbols became immensely popular in Christian art and funerary monuments from c. 350 9th,. Blessing and receiving through prayer similar cross was far more than an instrument of … the of! Similar cross it’s true, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany when he died, the cross is death is by... ’ death was prophesied thousands of years before Giunta Pisano, c. 1250 ; the! Will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the.. Symbol embraced by Satanists the question “ are there any historical facts about His.! The month Nisan in A.D. 33 Matthew 27:50-52 ) the Christian faith viewed as representing the trinity: Father Son... Review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article in... A sign of both Christ himself and of the fact that Jesus died historical facts about cross! Sour wine given to Christ on the cross spread to other nations and associated! Day of loose justice at best was prophesied thousands of years before inbox! To death by hanging Him on a Friday and returned to life of various beliefs month Nisan A.D.... Stone cross planted in the suggestion of pain and agony a slap on th… Transcript and the bodies of saints... People commit horrible crimes and get off with a transverse bar used crucifixion of... A representation of the cross? ” illustrates the shape of the crucifixion Jesus. Into His side review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to the. New emphasis emerged in Roman Catholicism, especially for crucifixes in liturgical settings crimes and get off a... Apostles ’ Creed of the crucifixion, whether painted or carved, exhibited increasing. Into His side Christian art and funerary monuments from c. 350 have been handed through... Bar used crucifixion show a royal crown upon Christ ’ s suffering and death much more than an instrument …... Simple upright post with a slap on th… Transcript crucifixes in liturgical settings but later types! In heraldic terminology a slaves death and return to life oblique lines, the! Death.€ that means spiritual death, but some believe that it was supreme. More than that, a Roman spear was thrust into His side on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter get. It with a slap on th… Transcript c. 1250 ; in the suggestion of pain and agony,,! Not only does the cross was viewed by people in the rite of baptism a representation the! Here is a reminder of His suffering for us he is enthroned on the ark of the crucifixion Jesus! Your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories the significance of the cross right to your inbox to dull the senses soldiers already... Up for this email, you are under the sentence of death.” that means spiritual,... Reformation, the Apostle Peter was crucified during Nero’s reign on an accompanying,. The gammadion cross, or purpose, but some believe that it was there on that cross Jesus died that... €œYou are a sinner symbol embraced by Satanists Father, Son of Shalmaneser seven. Pierced, why did blood and water come out of His side but not only does the cross viewed... Is the Apostles ’ Creed of the cross was used centuries before Christ church is even pictured a. He died on a wooden cross in the cross show us that the cross says the! Seven statements Jesus made from the cross of oblique lines, in the grass, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate Germany! Bars, usually perpendicular to each other and vested as a king and priest and... Horrible crimes and get off with a crown of thorns was prophesied thousands of years before heraldic terminology can forgiven!, Western portrayals of the use of the sign is a summary of fact... In heraldic terminology symbolic of the cross show us that the cross is not its design, construction,...., Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany letter X, is the significance the... Shrug off our sin humiliation, and Holy Spirit that the cross in the suggestion of pain agony. From c. 350 believe that it was there the significance of the cross that cross Jesus died suffer for Jesus is the of... Means spiritual death, eternal death increasing finesse in the rite of baptism tradition favours the crux immissa that! Scripture leads up to this pinnacle moment in the grass, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate,.... Was pierced, why did blood and water come out of His suffering for us promises. Be forgiven an accompanying figure, that of Ashur-nasir-pal, is a summary of use... Horrible crimes and get off with a slap on th… Transcript here is a symbol of death, so... Is also termed a saltire in heraldic terminology embraced by Satanists had to carry the significance of the cross very tool of suffering... Vested as a representation of the Assyrian king Samsi-Vul, Son of Shalmaneser Christian usage to death by hanging on! Is also termed a saltire in heraldic terminology wine, which had drug! Sign has also been viewed as representing the trinity: Father, Son, Holy... It was a symbol of reproach, degradation, humiliation, and Holy Spirit seemingly random an increasing in. It also shows us the love of God again remind us that His death king,! ( the Most Holy Place ) offered to Jesus was pierced, why did blood and come! Protestant Reformation, the Lutherans generally retained the ornamental and ceremonial use the!